By Stephanie Zacharek
By Alan Scherstuhl
By Amy Nicholson
By Chris Packham
By David Kipen
By Stephanie Zacharek
By Alan Scherstuhl
By Caira LaVelle
Recently in the news more for its economic woes than for its filmic triumphs, Brazil once justifiably boasted of its distinguished Cinema Novo. Beginning in the early 1960s, talented Brazilian filmmakers committed themselves to a "new wave" of social intervention. Independent artists embraced inexpensive modes of production to create political and artistic works confronting harsh social inequities and prompting change.
Assaulted over the years by coups and countercoups and restricted periodically by state control, Brazilian filmmakers learned to cloak their messages in symbol and metaphor. As they entertained and indicted, their efforts gained a strong national and international following, illustrated by those films best known in the U.S.: Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands (1978), Pixote (1981), and Bye Bye Brazil (1979) and Xica (1976).
Though economic factors now severely hamper cinema's revitalization efforts, every now and then a stunning film reminds us of the acclaimed Brazilian legacy. Such a work is director Walter Salles' Central Station, which draws on the rich heritage of metaphoric disguise without ever sacrificing the historical specificity of its two protagonists. An older woman and a young boy make an archetypal journey into the interior of the country and the heart, geographical and emotional terrain too seldom explored.
Retired schoolteacher Dora earns a living writing letters in Rio's central rail station. World-weary, cynical about her customers, she takes their letters not to the post office but to her apartment. There, with the advice of her vivacious neighbor Irene, Dora decides whether she'll discard the letters, mail them or put them in a drawer, holding them for a later decision. One of her repeat customers is a mother, soon hit and killed by a bus. When the woman's 9-year-old son, Josue, now homeless, takes up residence in the station, Dora's life and his become inextricably intertwined.
Needing a television, Dora decides to sell Josue to unscrupulous opportunists who market organs. But she rescinds her decision, rescues Josue in a frightening encounter and flees with the boy in search of his long-absent father. Dora and Josue's unusual encounters -- pursuing dead ends, help from and betrayal by a trucker, a religious pilgrimage -- drive the plot, but it's the mythic quest and the rekindling of Dora's dormant compassion that anchor the film firmly in our hearts. Extraordinary performances by the amazing veteran Brazilian stage actress Fernanda Montenegro and by the irresistibly lovable amateur Vinicius de Oliveira give warmth and depth to Central Station's humor and meticulous observation.
When I asked Vinnie, a boy even more captivating in person than in the film, what he hoped the audience learned, he stated the message perfectly: "I hope people learn to be more compassionate, more open to others, and Brazilians more comfortable with our self-image and the image of Brazil as it really is."
Central Station has won the Golden Globe for best foreign film and is a certain contender for the Oscar. More important, it's a film that touches and endorses the kindness we all need to rekindle and to thrive. In an interview conducted in St. Louis with award-winning documentary director Walter Salles, I learned a great deal about Central Station's production and its explicit parallels to contemporary Brazilian history. Perhaps not surprisingly, comparisons to U.S. circumstances readily suggest themselves as well.
Salles says, "We have lived too long in a culture of indifference and impunity, making consumerism more important than anything else. In Brazil, that ignited the desire to find a more humane quality, to redefine what society could be. Even though it's far from ideal, the U.S. has better wealth distribution and a much better legal system. In Brazil, there's no way to avoid seeing blatant inequalities as part of the structure. The struggle for justice is so palpable I felt this had the makings of a film.
"There's also a strong desire to reshape our own identity, which has affected the construction of the characters. For example, Dora is representative of a culture of cynicism. Why doesn't she send some letters? Because she knows impunity reigns and she will not be caught. So she can cavalierly make moral judgments. She pays a price, living a minuscule life and enduring her own solitude, because if you're incapable of sharing, you don't realize the possibilities of friendship.
"On the other hand, Josue represents exactly the opposite -- the possibility of change. And by his fierce desire to find his father, he redefines his future, rebaptizes himself and offers Dora a second chance she never thought she could have. This is the new Brazil for me. Dora represents the old state of things and the kid the possibility of changing that status quo, of refusing it, of shaping a new identity. The father, then, is a hypothetical father because maybe we can install a new identity in our country.
"The truck driver represents something else happening continuously in Brazil. Due to their solitude, an increasing number of people are drawn to evangelist churches like you have here. But in Brazil, they have transcended religious territory to become a social problem. They specify your obligation to give them 10 percent of your income to save your soul. In a society where so many people are abandoned, many pay that to be part of a group and to find any solace. But in doing so, they refuse other possibilities, including sexual ones. The truck driver, as gentle as he is, has that limit. By contrast, as Dora grows closer and closer to Josue, she gets more feminine. At 67, she realizes she can have a desire for a man. We worked with subtlety to avoid any exploitation.
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