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When Patrick Horine moved back to St. Louis from San Francisco a few years ago, he and his wife noticed something was missing in their Tower Grove South neighborhood: fresh produce.
They shopped for produce at the Soulard Market, he says, but it was difficult to determine which of the bounty was local and which was shipped in from parts unknown. "We knew that the neighborhood was ready for a market, and we knew that the residents were there to support it," says Horine.
Over the past winter, they began planning to open their own farmer's market in Tower Grove Park. Although the idea sparked enthusiasm among their neighbors, they soon discovered it didn't sit well with many of the farmers they invited to participate.
"The response was mixed," says Horine. "Some were immediately interested, but about half said that they didn't think we'd be able to pull it off."
One of those farmers was Paul Krautmann of Bellew's Creek Farm. When Horine called Krautmann, who grows sweet potatoes, winter squash, garlic and chipotle peppers on 10 of his 65 acres, the farmer didn't mince words. "I laid it out, brass knuckles," recalls Krautmann. "I said, 'Good luck, honest to peas, and I hope it succeeds, but I think you're going to have a hard time filling booths and finding competent farmers.'"
Sam Hilmer of Claverach Farms told Horine he was committed to the GreenMarket, which was birthed last year four miles away in the Central West End. Hilmer, known for his microgreens, suggested Horine aim for a weekday market. Aside from the Maplewood Farmer's Market, which sets up shop in the parking lot of Schlafly Bottleworks each Wednesday, the rest of the week was wide open.
"He didn't really heed my advice," says Hilmer. "He was set on the idea of a Saturday market before he talked to any of the farmers, and before he knew whether it was realistic."
Over the past decade, farmer's markets have been cropping up all over. According to the Missouri Department of Agriculture, there were 52 markets in the state in 1997. By last year that number had more than doubled. Between 2004 and 2005 alone, the state saw fifteen new markets added.
The growth, in St. Louis and nationwide, has been fueled by an increasing desire for locally grown produce.
"Typically, the foods we find in the store have traveled over 1,500 miles," explains Allan Benjamin, business development specialist for the Department of Agriculture. "Consumers want local foods. They want to know who's growing their foods. They want to go out and talk with that farmer and get to know them, and farmer's markets are the ideal place to do that."
The problem in St. Louis, explains Julia Feder, market master of GreenMarket, is that there aren't enough farmers to go around. "In a 120-mile radius, I'm guessing that there are no more than 15 produce farmers" interested in working the markets, she says.
"It's a small pool of farmers who are spread thin over a number of markets," adds Sam Hilmer, "and it's diluting them all. As a result, you've got a bunch of half-assed markets. People go there and say, 'Where's the produce?'"
The problem isn't limited to St. Louis, says Vance Corum, who organized some of the first successful markets in Southern California. "The same argument has taken place in Southern California in the LA basin, where I started farmer's markets in 1979. We heard all the time different areas with existing markets complaining about new markets coming online, and sometimes they'd be three, four, five miles apart."
So far, including meat and cheese purveyors, only thirteen farmers are hauling their produce to the Tower Grove Market although not all of them have committed to selling every week. Horine hopes to have eighteen by July. By comparison, Soulard Market has 93 food vendors, 44 of whom are produce resellers; 22 are growers. The six-year-old Clayton market, in peak season, will have 33 food vendors; and the GreenMarket has increased its vendor population to 17. The Maplewood Farmer's Market has 10 growers.
Compounding the problem in the St. Louis area is a lack of coordination among the farmers themselves. With each new market, growers individually decide whether to commit. Farmers in many other regions are much more organized, says Jack Gerten, manager of the St. Paul Growers Association, a collective of 160 farmers that governs the farmer's markets in St. Paul, Minnesota.
In the St. Paul area, the growers control their markets. If they decide that a neighborhood isn't ready for a market or that it will dilute demand, the farmers simply decline to participate. The association operates a main market in downtown St. Paul and eighteen satellite locations.
"It gives us a strength," explains Gerten. "We have a membership fee, which provides us the money to promote the markets. If you're doing it individually, you just can't afford to do anything except just sit there with a sign on the street and hope that people will give you some free [word-of-mouth] advertising."