By Lindsay Toler
By Chad Garrison
By Brett Koshkin
By RFT Staff
By Lindsay Toler
By Riverfront Times
By Danny Wicentowski
By Pete Kotz
On December 8, 1941, America entered World War II. Thousands of young men rushed to enlist and join the war effort even blacks, who were living in what was essentially a separate America, with fewer rights and little representation in the government. Their desire to serve a country that wouldn't serve them is a singular example of patriotism.
Many of these black volunteers wanted to be pilots something the Army War College had somehow determined through a series of studies was impossible because blacks were "unfit for leadership roles and incapable of aviation." President Franklin D. Roosevelt, made aware of the Army War College studies, opted to veto the army's advice. The NAACP's then-recent lawsuit to force the government into accepting Yancy Williams' application for military pilot training had pushed the argument to this point, but give Roosevelt credit for making the right choice: The president ordered the creation of an aviation training program for blacks, located in Tuskegee, Alabama, and the legend of the Tuskegee Airmen officially began.
Operating out of segregated bases, with no access to officers' clubs, often living in substandard housing and being subjected to the blatant racism of other officers and enlisted men, the Tuskegee Airmen didn't just prove the Army War College wrong they gave the lie to the myth that black Americans were lazy, shiftless and incapable of excelling at anything other than manual labor. Soon white pilots were requesting the black pilots as escorts, because no other fighter wing guarded their bombers as doggedly.
By the close of World War II, the Tuskegee Airmen were renowned for their excellent flying in 1,500 missions, the Red Tails (so named for the distinctive paint jobs on the tails of their planes) are reputed to have never lost a bomber they escorted. They never abandoned their charges, never chased after enemy fighters to do so and lose a bomber to enemy aircraft was to jeopardize the future of black aviation, and all of the pilots knew it. ABC News has recently reported that two unnamed historians claim the Airmen did in fact lose "a few" bombers to the Germans; tell this to a Tuskegee Airman and you'll get the response, "We couldn't lose a bomber, because if you did, you didn't come back to the base." It wasn't a joke then, and it's not a joke now. These men were fighting for generations yet to come.
The effect of the program is not in dispute: The Tuskegee Airmen proved that blacks could be officers and pilots, and the 992 men who completed the training paved the way for the eventual integration of the U.S. armed forces with their resounding success. As the Airmen are fond of saying, they fought a war on two fronts: fascism in Europe, racism at home. The first war, they won outright; the second, well, the fight continues.
On March 29 the Tuskegee Airmen as a group received the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor for their "unique military record, which inspired revolutionary reform in the Armed Forces," according to the official proclamation. Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House of Representatives, presented the medal to a select group of Tuskegee Airmen in the Great Hall of the Library of Congress. It's an honor St. Louisan Lewis John Lynch, along with his brothers in arms, waited a lifetime to receive.
In Lew's case, it came almost too late. An original Tuskegee Airman, a veteran of 42 combat missions in World War II, a career Air Force officer with 20-plus years' experience, a St. Louisan for the past 40 years and one of the kindest, most gracious men you could ever hope to meet, Lew is dying in a hospice. His son David made the trip to Washington in his place, wearing a photo of his father pinned to his jacket so the rest of the unit would know Lew made it in spirit. Many sons and daughters also stood as proxies for their fathers; out of the 930 or so Airmen who survived the war, very few survived the long wait to be recognized for their singular achievement in the healing of America's racial rift. The long years that reaped the Airmen one by one finally caught up to Lew, and what should have been a proud day for the Lynch family was bittersweet at best. And it was bittersweet for me and my family as well. Lew has been my mother's companion, and essentially stepfather to me and my sister, for fourteen years.
Lew's pride in his status as an original Tuskegee Airman was boundless, but he wore it lightly: This was a man whose e-mail address was "Lvglegend," and who took great delight in pointing himself out in Solomon Thurman Jr. and Spencer Taylor's mural Black Americans in Flight, which hangs permanently in the main terminal at Lambert St. Louis International Airport. He was likewise thrilled when the local chapter of the Black Pilots Association took his name as the group's official designation. And Lew's outright joy at his portrayal in fellow Airman Robert Williams' 1995 HBO film The Tuskegee Airmen Mekhi Phifer portrayed "Lewis Johns" was lessened only somewhat by Williams' killing off his good friend in the first third of the movie for "dramatic effect." (What are best friends for?)